Urine Drug Screen
Urine drug screens are the most popular when it comes to drug testing, making up 95% of the employment drug screenings conducted in the United States. Its popularity is due to its low cost and simple collection process. The specimen collection usually happens at a clinic or testing facility, and the sample is then sent to a lab for screening. Depending on the type of panel test (4-14), the results will show either false or positive for a specific set of drugs.
Saliva Drug Screen
This drug test uses a less invasive collection process involving a swab of the mouth in which will be come available to DOT. However, the drug detection period is shorter than a urine drug screen test. For example, the window of detection for THC in saliva is only 7-21 hours. The substances that are picked up using a saliva drug screen include: marijuana, cocaine, opiates, alcohol, amphetamine, methamphetamine, (including ecstasy), and PCP.
Blood Drug Screening
Blood testing is the the most invasive way due to having your blood drawn, and has a short detection window, and high price tag. Only 6% of pre-employment drug tests conducted in 2019 were blood tests. However, blood tests are also useful for detecting impairment on the job. Unlike urine, which takes several days to show toxins, The substances tested in a blood test include: ethyl alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine and metabolite, phencyclidine, THC, opiates, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, propoxyphene, meperidine, tramadol, gabapentin, and carisoprodol.
Someone could have used marijuana months ago, yet through hair drug testing, the substance would still be detected. This is because the metabolites left behind by drug use are left in the blood, filtered through the blood vessels in the scalp, and permanently stay within the hair follicle. Although not a popular form of drug screening due to the high price tag it can act as a backup to urine testing in certain situations. The substances tested include: amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, phencyclidine, barbiturates, and expanded opiates (oxycodone, oxymorphone,